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History and methods of survey archaeology


Darbas anglų kalba apie archeologinių kasinėjimų istoriją ir tyrimų metodus. Introduction. Methods of surface survey. Mapping. Surface Collection. Approaches to Surface Survey. Aerial photography. Geophysical survey. GIS. Surveying under the water. History of surveying. Conclusion.


Surface survey refers to a variety of ways archaeologists acquire data from sites without excavation. There are many nondestructive ways of looking at sites in their local and regional settings. The overall objective of surface survey is to determine as much as possible about a given site or region from observable remains and from what can be detected beneath the ground without the excavation. Martha Joukowsky in her Field Archaeology book says, that in surveying, as in archaeology, every day is different – the surveyor, like the archaeologist, may be confronted with the unexpected obstacle. Surveying can only bee learned in the field and put them into practice. All archaeologists are concerned with surveying, as a means of planning and laying out the area of excavation. Surveying is generally the first step in all archaeological projects, and is often the last step before the completion of the excavation.
Surface Survey has to basic methods; ground survey and remote sensing. Each of these methods involves several techniques. Ground survey techniques gather archaeological data present on the ground surface. Usually it is walking the site or sites under investigation to detect and record whatever surface artifacts, and features may be present. To record surface features archaeologists use mapping techniques, for the surface artifacts and ecofacts – surface collections. A map is a scaled representation of a segment of the earth’s surface. Archaeologists use two basic kinds of maps: planimetric maps and topographic maps. Archeological planimetric maps depict archaeological features (buildings, walls, tombs etc.) without indicating relief or other topoghraphic data. Topographic maps show not only archaeological remains but also the three dimensional aspects of land forms using contour lines. Topographic maps usually contain symbols for natural features (rivers, springs, lakes, modern rivers and buildings). Important to note that planimetric maps usually offer more interpretation of archaeological remains than do topographic maps. There are several different kinds of maps:
Regional maps. Regional maps are designed to depict archaeological sites within their local environmental region. They are especially important in presenting the relationship of the site to hydrographic and physiographic features. Regional maps are small in scale, they cover extensive areas. ...

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